Axis Break Ggplot2


Among the possible values, there are : NULL: hide all breaks; waiver(): the default break computation; a character or numeric vector specifying which breaks to display; labels: labels of axis tick marks. Let’s break down the plot above and introduce some of the ggplot2 terminology. For analysis, the purpose histogram requires some built-in dataset to import in R. Plotting individual observations and group means with ggplot2. Although this chapter focuses on the ggplot2 package, it is worth having at least passing familiarity with some of the basic plotting tools included with R. Ggplot multi level x axis. It would be great if you could help me with this challenge. If your data needs to be restructured, see this page for more information. sec_axis is used to create the specifications for a secondary axis. This is added to the basic ggplot object. The first layer for any ggplot2 graph is an aesthetics layer. However, the latter needs some variation to have the aes in geom_col and not in ggplot. x))) + scale_y_log10(breaks = trans_breaks("log10", function(x) 10^x), labels = trans_format("log10", math_format(10^. The solution is surprisingly simple and clear once you know the syntax: scale_x_datetime(breaks = date_breaks("12 hours")) This places a break every 12 hours. The piece that is missing is for time, separate from any date; “clock time”, if you will. We can rotate axis text labels using theme() function in ggplot2. ggplot2 creates a legend for each aesthetic except for x, y, and group. object + facet_grid(rows ~ columns). It took me a surprising amount of time to find how to change the tick interval on ggplot2 datetime axes, without manually specifying the date of each position. breaks_width(width, offset = 0) width: Distance between each break. The post will visualise the theoretical winnings I would've had, had I followed the simple model to predict (or tip as it's known in Australia) winners in the AFL that I explained in this post. break(axis=2,breakpos=3. manually create interaction term , restructure info frame there must way quicker. Notes: At present, ggplot2 cannot be used to create 3D graphs or mosaic plots. 3 CATA <- read. Jörg Steinkamp. A number between 0 and 0. There are four possible types of input: NULL: don't display any breaks a character vector giving the breaks as they should appear on the axis or in the legend. ) Aesthetic mapping: Variables mapped to visual cues, such as x-axis and y-axis values and color There. remove background (remove backgroud colour and border lines, but does not remove grid lines). The parameter breaks controls the split of the axis. Question: change axis scale on. p <- p + scale_y_continuous (breaks=seq (- 10, 10,by= 2)). waiver() for the default breaks computed by the transformation object A numeric vector of positions. I also like to remove that standard gray background using a different theme. name: The name of the secondary axis. Once we've loaded the aforementioned titanic data set, we need to download and load ggplot2, which has countless other functions other than ggplot. A guide to creating modern data visualizations with R. Formally, each scale is a function from a region in data space (the domain of the scale) to a region in aesthetic space (the range of the scale). Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 or ask your own question. Note that because of that you can't easily control the second axis lower. Likewise, scale_y_continuous set the least cut off point to 15 and highest cut off point of y axis to 30. Hadley Wickham's grammar differs from the original by focusing on layered approach to building statistical graphics. In this section, we’ll provide an overview of some guidelines for creating good plots, based on the work of Edward Tufte and others, and show how you can customize ggplot objects to adhere to some of these guidelines. de; joergsteinkamp; joergsteinkamp; Things I find interesting and like to share, even if no one cares. ggplot2 is very flexible, incorporates many themes and plot specification at a high level of abstraction. Double-click on the axis to open the Format Axes dialog. TemperatureF on the y axis and keying the colorization; Facet the graph (make multiple sections), one for each city in our data set; Draw the data with points, at opacity set to 1/6, so points that get plotted a lot will end up darker, and jittered a bit to smooth things out. In ggplot2, you can make a line chart by adding the geom_line() layer. Scales are normally automatically managed by ggplot2 but sometimes more control is needed in order to optimize our plot. Both solutions offered, here using plot and here using lattice, basically loop through the great circle lines ordered from low to high number of flights and overplot the lines with fewer counts, which are plotted in a light color with those with higher counts, which are. Examples: ranges = (10-500 1000-5000 10000-50000). Change Space & Width of Bars in ggplot2 Barplot; Increase Y-Axis Scale of Barplot in R; Change Y-Axis to Percentage Points in ggplot2 Barplot; Keep Unused Factor Levels in ggplot2 Barplot; Plots in R; All R Programming Examples. 1, date and datetime scales have limited secondary axis capabilities. tidytext provides 2 helper functions to reorder a variable on a facet level. The ggplot_build function outputs a list of data frames (one for each layer) and a panel object with information about axis limits among other things. Depending on the class at hand, axis ticks and labels can be controlled by using scale_*_date, scale_*_datetime or scale_*_time, respectively. The following arguments are common to most scales in ggplot2: name: the first argument specifies the axis or legend title; limits: the minimum and maximum of the scale; breaks: the points along the scale where labels should appear; labels: the text that appear at each break. Swapping X and Y axes. With ggplot2 you create visualizations by adding layers to a plot. Let’s say you think it’s overkill to label the x-axis twice and want to remove the axis from the second plot. The ggplot2 package is widely used and valued for its simple, consistent approach to making plots. 'c=1, c=2, c=3'). However, plotmath and expression won't allow this (e. x = element_blank ()) CairoPNG ( filename = "broken_axis. 'c=1, c=2, c=3'). We will be using the geom_polygon geom of ggplot2, which knows where to stop and start new polygons by using the ID variable. This means if we learn the tools to work with a legend then we can change the Axes in the same way and vice-verse. (There are several steps). 17 7 65-74 10. There are four possible types of input: NULL: don't display any breaks a character vector giving the breaks as they should appear on the axis or in the legend. table(header = T, text = 'hedonics age Percentage 5 45-54 0 5 55-64 2. Ggplot2 axis scales and transformations - Easy Guides Sthda. To rotate x-axis text labels, we use "axis. size : size of text. Here is a site that gives a step-by-step guide on how to do it. The parameter boxwidth specifies the width of these rectangles (1 is the width between successive. grid() or perhaps facet_wrap() in ggplot2. A numeric vector of positions. At the end I tweeted asking Hadley Wickham and Lionel Henrey whether ggplot2 was compatible with the tidy eval, They said that it was on the todo list. ps: add p-values from t-tests addtable2plot: Add a table of values to a plot arctext: Display text on a circular arc axis. The ggplot2 package provides geom_line(), geom_step() and geom_path() function to create line graph. However, with a little trick this problem can be easily overcome. ggplot2 is an implementation of Leland Wilkinson's Grammar of Graphics by Hadley Wickham at RStudio as described in this article and ggplot2 book. Without this, the graph will show counts of each value on the x. Either a number, or for date/times, a single string of the form "n unit", e. The axis drawing functions. Places a "break" mark on an axis on an existing plot. It took me a surprising amount of time to find how to change the tick interval on ggplot2 datetime axes, without manually specifying the date of each position. class: center, middle, inverse, title-slide # Plotting with ggplot2 ## EPsy 8251 ### Andrew Zieffler" ### 2019-06-05 --- # Preparation ```r # Load libraries library. The specifications are strictly inside the plots. Grammar of Graphics These ideas and the syntax of ggplot2 help to think of graphs in a new and more general way. This distribution might look familiar. These limitations also lead to issues with the labeling, but those can be fixed manually. People often describe plots by the type of geom that the plot uses. Unlike base R graphs, the ggplot2 graphs are not effected by many of the options set in the par( ) function. That is, the aesthetics set up the formula which determines how to break down the joint distribution. Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 or ask your own question. Break axis by a user defined value. Temperature and precipitation in Kushiro city, Hokkaido, Japan (2015) Obtained from Japan meteorological agency. remove background (remove backgroud colour and border lines, but does not remove grid lines). ggplot2 is based on the "grammar of graphics", Axes — we want country name on the x-axis and life expectancy on the y-axis; Let’s break this down a little:. Even the most experienced R users need help creating elegant graphics. class: center, middle, inverse, title-slide # Introduction to ggplot2 ### Rockefeller University, Bioinformatics Resource Centre ### x <- c(0. 我在2005年左右发现了类似问题的讨论,但是他们提供的解决方案并没有转化为ggplot2中的我的应用程序。 line break. p <- p + labs (x= "", y= "", title= "Measured Count per Category") Similarly, let's fix the y axis breaks using a scale layer. However, it easily gets messed up by outliers. How do we break an attachment with. y : y axis location. p + xlab. (The seq function is a base R function that indicates the start and endpoints and the units to increment by respectively. ggplot2 allows you to use a function to set the breaks for the x-axis, so I could just check what the limits of the plot are and do two different things depending on the upper limit. Using facet_wrap() in ggplot2 is a great way to create multiple panelled plots. R has a built-in base function, dotchart(), but since it's such an easy graph to draw, doing it "from scratch" in ggplot2 or base allows for more customization. Label line ends in time series with ggplot2. breaks_width(width, offset = 0) width: Distance between each break. The name of the scale. Likewise, scale_y_continuous set the least cut off point to 15 and highest cut off point of y axis to 30. My preference would be to have every odd label at height 0, and every even at height 2 units more distant from the x-axis. ggplot2 is based on the "grammar of graphics", Axes — we want country name on the x-axis and life expectancy on the y-axis; Let's break this down a little:. We can rotate axis text labels using theme() function in ggplot2. This means if we learn the tools to work with a legend then we can change the Axes in the same way and vice-verse. @drsimonj here to share my approach for visualizing individual observations with group means in the same plot. How to automatically re-calculate the y axis scale after limiting the x axis in R ggplot2 0 How to point each plot to correct y axis (many plots, two y axes, in R with ggplot2). ScalesCommon Scale Arguments name: the first argument gives the axis or legend title limits: the minimum and maximum of the scale breaks: the points along the scale where labels should appear labels: the labels that appear at each break (Harvard MIT Data Center) Introduciton to R Graphics with ggplot2 May 10, 2013 29 / 60. While ggplot2 has many useful features, this blog post will explore how to create figures with multiple ggplot2 plots. In particular, you can now set the n parameter in geom_density2d() without it partially matching na. In the Gaps and Directions section, you can choose either a two-segment (one gap) or three-segment (two gaps) axis. To do so, specify the argument scales = "free_y" in the function facet(). The disadvantage is that the number of. I often have this problem when using lots of facets, as sometimes the labels overlap with eachother on some of the scales. Scales also provide the tools that let you read the plot: the axes and legends. I can't change the y-axis scale to be (0. Numeric value controlling x axis breaks. Get code examples like "plotly set axis titles" instantly right from your google search results with the Grepper Chrome Extension. I'm using the following script with "mtcars" data just to simplify my. It might require some googling regarding your specific case, and it will act as a line break. If waiver(), the default, the name of the scale is taken from the first mapping used for that aesthetic. Using the limits parameter in scale_y_continuous or if you use the lims() or ylim() function, you will break the scale and you will have an. sum ) p <- p + facet_grid (. Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 or ask your own question. Up until now, we've kept these key tidbits on a local PDF. If NULL, the default, the name of the scale is taken from the first mapping used for that aesthetic. Define so-called “aesthetic mappings”, i. 0, you can simply use coord_cartesian(clip = 'off'). Length (log)") Draw ggplot2 Barchart with Axis Break & Zoom in R (Example Code) R How to Increase / Decrease the Plot Legend Size (2 Examples) How to Apply the c() Function in R (Example Code). Jörg Steinkamp. table(header = T, text = 'hedonics age Percentage 5 45-54 0 5 55-64 2. As I googled and as I know, we can use the function axis. 17 7 65-74 10. ggplot2 has a wide variety of color scales; here is an example using scale_color_gradient2 to interpolate between three different colors: home_plot + scale_color_gradient2 ( breaks = c ( 1975. Allowed values are "default" or "percent". 5) diameter of the point ; shape - (default: 16=dot) the shape of the point ; colour - (default: "black") the color of the point. barplot(), gap. With slightly more complex code, you can create very interesting and customized plots using ggplot2. Downloadable data is ava. The function scale_x_continuous() and scale_y_continuous() can be used for ggplot axis breaks settings. 3 Title Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics Description A system for 'declaratively' creating graphics, based on ``The Grammar of Graphics''. 5, 2010, 2010. Used as axis or legend title. I found this discussion circa 2005 of a similar issue but the work around that they offer doesn't translate to my application in ggplot2. d + scale_x_continuous(limits = c(2,4),breaks = seq(2,4,0. ggplot2 0 In this article, you will learn how to set ggplot breaksfor continuous x and y axes. We will use the built-in Gapminder dataset for scatterplot example and the COVID-19 data for the line graph, world map and barchart. Using facets, which is built in to ggplot2 but doesn’t allow much control over the non-shared axes. There are a variety of ways to combine ggplot2 plots with a single shared axis. Briefly its basic syntax is as follows: plot. Data and a basic layer: Example 1: Example 2: Example 3: Example 4: Unfortunately, the combination of oblique rotation and justification is hard…. Here is a dot plot showing fertility data from the built-in swiss dataset drawn with ggplot2: Hold mouse over blue code for explanation. barplot(), gap. Downloadable data is ava. ggplot2 allows you to use a function to set the breaks for the x-axis, so I could just check what the limits of the plot are and do two different things depending on the upper limit. How to make line plots in ggplot2 with geom_line. Using geom_blank for better axis ranges in ggplot The RMarkdown source to this file can be found here. Ggplot multi level x axis. You can manually add the sequence of number or use the seq()function: seq(1, 3. This is a situation where using a coordinate system would be helpful. The time points are usually shown on the x axis while the value for the measurement is shown on the y axis. Need categorial data for x axis. But, to "break out" the density plot into multiple density plots, we need to map a categorical variable to the "color" aesthetic:. Using facets, which is built in to ggplot2 but doesn’t allow much control over the non-shared axes. Here is a (somewhat overblown) example. However, things can get tricky if you want a lot of control over all plot elements. Update: January 16, 2018. Either a number, or for date/times, a single string of the form "n unit", e. Package ‘ggplot2’ December 30, 2020 Version 3. I want a box plot of variable boxthis with respect to two factors f1 and f2. To make the x-axis text label easy to read, let us rotate the labels by 90 degrees. library(MASS) # to access Animals data sets library(scales) # to access break formatting functions # x and y axis are transformed and formatted p2 - ggplot(Animals, aes(x = body, y = brain)) + geom_point() + scale_x_log10(breaks = trans_breaks("log10", function(x) 10^x), labels = trans_format("log10", math_format(10^. 1, date and datetime scales have limited secondary axis capabilities. The ggplot() function. breaks_width() is commoly supplied to the breaks arguent in scale function for equally spaced breaks, useful for numeric, date, and date-time scales. In addition specialized graphs including geographic maps, the display of change over time, flow diagrams, interactive graphs, and graphs that help with the interpret statistical models are included. Plotting timeseries with dates on x-axis and times on y-axis can be a bit tricky in ggplot2. Custom styles. Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 or ask your own question. See Also Thelabeling packagefor alternative break/tick functions, and ggplot2::dup_axis(), for which gnuaxis() is an alias Examples library(ggplot2) ggplot(iris, aes(Sepal. Summary: In this R programming tutorial you have learned how to draw a ggplot2 bargraph with break and zoom in the. To display data values, map variables in the data set to aesthetic properties of the geom like size, color, and x and y locations. However, I have a problem with my axis. Description Usage Arguments Value Examples. Learn how to use the ggplot2 library in R to plot nice-looking graphs and find out how to customize them in this step-by-step guide. These limitations also lead to issues with the labeling, but those can be fixed manually. With ggplot2 you create visualizations by adding layers to a plot. Here, scale_x_continuous () and scale_y_continuous () are used to specify styles for the labels and customized breaks along the x-axis and y-axis. 075 , 0 )) p <- p + theme ( strip. object + facet_grid(rows ~ columns). Let us see how to Create a ggplot Histogram, Format its color, change its labels, alter the axis. At the end I tweeted asking Hadley Wickham and Lionel Henrey whether ggplot2 was compatible with the tidy eval, They said that it was on the todo list. Without this, the graph will show counts of each value on the x. I also often use the expand = c(0,0) arugment to remove the margins at the top and bottom of the plot area. # HORIZONTAL BAR CHART ggplot(data = Arthritis, aes(x = Sex)) + geom_bar() + coord_flip(). Double-click on the axis to open the Format Axes dialog. waiver() for the default breaks computed by the transformation object. , for the holidays) even though the numbers would remain the same (e. Working with the Jikes RVM? Use Jikes RDB for debugging your VM hacks. And we specify "element_text(angle = 90)" to rotate the x-axis text by an angle 90 degree. Load the ggplot2() and reshape2() packages. Recommend:r - ggplot2 stagger axis labels e labels, they're as short as they can be. That made me searching for "broken axis" and I didn't find a. Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 or ask your own question. ) Aesthetic mapping: Variables mapped to visual cues, such as x-axis and y-axis values and color There. I'd like to write an axis label over two lines with an expression() statement. Let's say, you only want to show the range from 50% to 100%. ggplot2 allows you to use a function to set the breaks for the x-axis, so I could just check what the limits of the plot are and do two different things depending on the upper limit. axis to scale_y_continuous: Remove tick marks from discrete data: Adjust theme: y-axis. ggplot (data2, aes (x =factor (IR), First, as your y data are continuous you should use scale_y_continuous (). 5,style="zigzag") twogrp<-c(rnorm(5)+4,rnorm(5)+20,rnorm(5)+5,rnorm(5)+22) gap. 25 in this case) bp + scale_y_continuous (breaks = seq (1, 10, 1 / 4)) # The breaks can be spaced unevenly bp + scale_y_continuous (breaks = c (4, 4. subscripted text appears on the far right). In a sense, the ggplot2 system takes many of the cues from the base plotting system. Learn to create Bar Graph in R with. Key point for bar graphs with negative values that are on the y axis: add position="identity" to geom_bar() arguments I don't know why we need this position="identity":-) Probably more proof I need to understand statistics and the grammar of graphics more!. This post aims to introduce you to animating ggplot2 visualisations in r using the gganimate package by Thomas Lin Pedersen. This tutorial will again be working with the chol dataset. In a sense, the ggplot2 system takes many of the cues from the base plotting system. element_line(): Likewise element_line() is use to modify line based components such as the axis lines, major and minor grid lines, etc. Jul 15, 2014 · r - ggplot2: fill & position='dodge' for geom_line - how utilize 2 variables create x-axis? want show value on y-axis possible combinations of 2 predictors. break(), gap. Camille had some ideas but they still linger, "The more recent versions of ggplot2 allow for a secondary axis, but it needs to be based on a transformation of the primary axis. Allowed values are : NULL for. Then we ad two layers of geom, geom_boxplot for showing the boxplot and geom_jitter for showing the data points with jitter. Adding a Title and Axis Labels. Why is my code below not working? Thank you!. Line Graphs Line graphs are typically used for visualizing how one continuous variable, on the y-axis, changes in relation to another continuous variable, on the x-axis. name: The name of the scale. 9, style = "zigzag") twogrp <-c (rnorm (10) + 4, rnorm (10) + 20) gap. To get at the plot guts you can use the functions ggplot_gtable and ggplot_build. size : size of text. text = element_text(size=11. However, I have a problem with my axis. Load the package scales to access break formatting functions. (The seq function is a base R function that indicates the start and endpoints and the units to increment by respectively. 3 Title Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics Description A system for 'declaratively' creating graphics, based on ``The Grammar of Graphics''. For analysis, the purpose histogram requires some built-in dataset to import in R. You want to do make basic bar or line graphs. Let's break down the plot above and introduce some of the ggplot2 terminology. Grammar of Graphics These ideas and the syntax of ggplot2 help to think of graphs in a new and more general way. by: same as break. First x-axis row is the week start, second - week end. On 3 months Ago. Each two adjacent points are connected with a line, hence the name. To get at the plot guts you can use the functions ggplot_gtable and ggplot_build. ggplot2 is the graphics library, and gridExtra helps us lay things out. Since ridgeline plots are relatively new, ggplot2 has no native way of creating them. Pretty much any statistical plot can be thought of as a mapping between data and one or more visual representations. org trans: A formula or function of transformation. A couple of days ago, the hexSticker package was published on CRAN. **I am having an issue with the year being read in as 2009. break: Place a "break" mark on an axis axis. The option axes=FALSE suppresses both x and y axes. sec_axis: Specify a secondary axis Description. If NULL, the legend title will be omitted. frame which are factors we want to compare by separating the data into panels. ~ mask , scales = "free" , space = "free" ) p <- p + scale_x_continuous ( breaks = breaks , labels = labels , expand = c ( 0. Line geoms have aesthetic attributes like their position on the x axis, position on the y axis, and color. Inside aes () function, set the categoric variable for the X axis, use the numeric for the Y axis. org trans: A formula or function of transformation. Each facet acts like a "level" in a factor, with a plot for each level. , a “left” y axis and “right” y axis), nor does it natively support three-dimensional plots that are difficult to read on a two-dimensional surface, like paper or a computer monitor. This function is used in conjunction with a position scale to create a secondary axis, positioned opposite of the primary axis. First x-axis row is the week start, second - week end. Here the rows and columns are variables in the data. The scale component allows to customize the axis and legends information on plots. break(axis=1,breakpos=NULL,pos=NULL,bgcol="white",breakcol="black", style="slash",brw=0. I want a box plot of variable boxthis with respect to two factors f1 and f2. Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 or ask your own question. In order for the bar chart to retain the order of the rows, the X axis variable (i. 생존분석 그래프의 중요성 생존분석은 의학계열에서 가장 자주 쓰이는 분석방법 중 하나입니다. ggplot2 element to modify; Remove background color, grid lines: Adjust theme: Add horizontal bars to the upper and lower whiskers: Add stat_boxplot: Have tick marks go inside the plot: Adjust theme: Tick marks should be on both sides of the y axis: Add sec. 3 Title Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics Description A system for 'declaratively' creating graphics, based on ``The Grammar of Graphics''. Need categorial data for x axis. waiver() to use the default break computation. The main idea is to design a graphic as a succession of layers. Set the length and range of each segment. Here are some examples of what we’ll be creating: I find these sorts of plots to be incredibly useful for visualizing and gaining insight into our data. Width, Sepal. xaxt="n" and yaxt="n" suppress the x and y axis respectively. Typically the user specifies the variables mapped to x and y explicitly, but sometimes an aesthetic is mapped to a computed variable, as happens with geom_histogram(), and does not need to be explicitly specified. element_line(): Likewise element_line() is use to modify line based components such as the axis lines, major and minor grid lines, etc. Here is a help sheet for modifying scales developed from the online help. However, with a little trick this problem can be easily overcome. Ordered Bar Chart is a Bar Chart that is ordered by the Y axis variable. Load the ggplot2() and reshape2() packages. Depending on the class at hand, axis ticks and labels can be controlled by using scale_*_date, scale_*_datetime or scale_*_time, respectively. The main three components to note are: Data: The US murders data table is being summarized. Package 'ggplot2' December 30, 2020 Version 3. Currently the graph keeps the column names as the labels for both of the axes. break(), gap. In the ggplot() function we specify the "default" dataset and map variables to aesthetics (aspects) of the graph. The disadvantage is that the number of. Examples of scatter charts and line charts with fits and regressions. If waiver(), the default, the name of the scale is taken from the first mapping used for that aesthetic. The results though are worth it. Length, color = Species)) +. Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 or ask your own question. If your data needs to be restructured, see this page for more information. class: center, middle, inverse, title-slide # Introduction to ggplot2 ### Rockefeller University, Bioinformatics Resource Centre ### Warning: package 'ggplot2' was built under R version 3. 142) I had to adjust the x-axis. The ggplot2 package in R is an implementation of The Grammar of Graphics as described by Leland Wilkinson in his book. For axes, you can set the properties of the ticks (or majorTicks and minorTicks separately), the labels and axis. Firstly we are. I often have this problem when using lots of facets, as sometimes the labels overlap with eachother on some of the scales. breaks_width() is commoly supplied to the breaks arguent in scale function for equally spaced breaks, useful for numeric, date, and date-time scales. reorder_within() takes three arguments: x: the item we want to reorder; by: what we want to reorder by; within: the groups or categories we want to reorder within; After that, we use scale_x_reordered()(or scale_y_reordered()) to finish the plot, these 2 scales can take any argument in. the categories) has to be converted into a factor. x = element_text(angle=45)) dp + scale_x_date(labels = date_format("%W")) dp + scale_x_date(breaks = date_breaks("months"), labels = date_format("%b")). Default statistic: stat_identity Default position adjustment: position_identity. How to automatically re-calculate the y axis scale after limiting the x axis in R ggplot2 0 How to point each plot to correct y axis (many plots, two y axes, in R with ggplot2).